Andromeda Galaxy, M31, Exmoor, 2020

All Andromeda's distant 2,5 million years away photons were collected under the truly dark skies of Exmoor using a reduced fast astrograph FSQ-85ED and a Nikon D810A for 6 hours.

Tech Card

Date / Location

13th, 17th & 18th September 2020, Brayford, North Devon near Exmoor, GMT+0, United Kingdom, TEMP: 16C, Bortle Class 3 ~SGM: 21.73 mag./arc sec2


Camera: Nikon D810A

Imaging Telescope: Takahashi FSQ-85ED

Correcting Lens: Takahashi Reducer-QE 0.73x (composite focal length at 328mm and focal ratio at f/3.8)

Mount: iOptron CEM25EC

Image Quality

14 bit RAW (NEF)

Exposure time per image / number of composities and sensitivity

ISO 3200, 96 x 120" subs

ISO 3200, 50 x 180" subs

Total Integration Time

5hrs 42mins

Calibration Frames

25 Darks, 50 Bias, 25 Flats


PixInsight 1.8.5 Core